Austin’s Chuckwagon Deli: 435-425-3290, 12 West Main, Torrey, UT 84775. A fine selection of hot or cold sandwiches, wraps, pizza and daily specials. Quality meats and cheeses cut to your specification. Homemade salads. Summer hours: 7:00 am to 9:30 pm.
Cafe Diablo: 435-425-3070, 599 West Main, Torrey, UT 84775. www.cafediablo.com. Open April – October. Liquor, beer, wine available. Innovative Southwestern cuisine – named “Best Restaurant in Southern Utah.” Specialties include: Pumpkinseed Crusted Trout, Chipotle Baby Back Ribs, Painted Chicken, Vegetarian Torta, Rattlesnake Cakes and Sinful Pastries.
Castlerock Coffee & Candy: 435-425-2100, Located at Junction of Hwy 12 & 24. Open 7:00am daily. Specialty coffees. Smoothies. Enjoy a fresh, memorable drink hot or cold. Hand-made candies. Fresh baked bagels, muffins & scones
Capitol Reef Cafe: 435-425-3271, 360 West Main, Torrey, UT 84775, Open Apr – Oct. Breakfast, lunch and dinner, wine & beer available. Fresh, natural, local foods deliciously cooked to your satisfaction. Healthy meals — lots of fresh vegetables, local fresh trout, stir-fry, steaks and ribs, brown rice, whole wheat rolls, no additives or preservatives.
Chillzz Malt Shop: 435-425-2600, 150 E. Hwy 24, Torrey, UT 84775- Open year round, great pizza, malts, burgers, icecream, patio, billiard room great for families and parties.
Cliffstone Restaurant: 435-425-3322 or 800-205-6343, 2900 West Hwy 24, Teasdale, UT 84775- Open Apr-Nov, breakfast & dinner, Friday&Saturday evenings, and by special arrangement. Wine and beer available, award-winning chef, intimate dining.
Red Cliff Restaurant: 435-425-3322, 2600 East Hwy 24, Torrey, UT 84775. Open year-round, 7 am – 11 am and 5 pm – 10 pm daily. Wine and beer available. Closest restaurant to Capitol Reef National Park, located in the Best Western Capitol Reef Resort, offering great family dining. A friendly atmosphere with great food.
Rim Rock Restaurant: 435-425-3388, 2523 East Hwy 24, Torrey, UT 84775. Open Mar – Dec. Liquor, beer, wine available. A taste of the Old West; affordable food and fun with unforgettable 360 degree views of Capitol Reef. Certified Black Angus beef. Comfort foods, great veggies, healthy meals professionally prepared to order. Live music on weekends.
Rim Rock Patio: 435-425-3389, 2523 E. Hwy 24. Open all year. Pizza, pasta, sandwiches, burritos, beer. Indoor/outdoor seating. Fabulous views. Horseshoes, disc golf, live music. Where the locals go.
Rooster’s Deli & Grille: 435-425-3956, 2428 E. Hwy 24. Open April 2007 year round. 11:00am-9:00pm Smoked ribs, bbq chicken, and fried chicken. Deli sandwiches, salads, and beer. Dine-in or take-out.
Sandstone Restaurant: 435-425-3775, 800-458-0216, located at Junction of Hwys 12 & 24, Torrey, UT 84775. Open year round 7 a.m. – 9 p.m., wine & beer available. Beautiful vistas are seen from every table. Trout, salmon and shrimp. Succulent USDA choice steaks, pasta & lasagna, specialty salads, local favorites and vegetarian entrees.
Slacker’s Burger Joint: 435-425-3710, 165 East Main, Torrey, UT 84775. Open Mar – Oct., 11 am – 9 pm daily. Offers good old-fashioned burgers and fries cooked to order, drinks. Try our famous Super Burger, Pizza Burgers and thick, creamy milkshakes. Call in orders welcome.
Subway: 435-425-3302, 675 East Hwy 24, Torrey, UT 84775, Open year round, 9 a.m. – 10 p.m. Offers subs, 3 foot and 6 foot sandwiches. Sack lunches for buses. ATM on the premises.
Taco Time: 435-425-3345, located at Junction Hwy 12 & 24, Torrey, UT 84775, Open year round.
Torrey Grill: 435-425-3500,
Thousand Lakes RV Park & Western Cookout Dinners: 435-425-3500, 1050 West Hwy 24, Torrey, UT 84775. Open May 1st – Oct 1st, 6:30 – 8:30 pm. Western cook-out dinners Monday – Friday. Charbroiled rib-eye steak, chicken, pork & vegetarian garden patty. Complete dinners start at $9.95 plus tax.
Aquarius Restaurant: 435-425-3771, FAX 425 3486, 240 West Main, Bicknell, UT 84715, www.aquariusinn.com. Open year round, 6 a.m. – 10 p.m. Large menu of home cooked food. Full course dinners, steak, trout, large variety of sandwiches.
Sunglow Family Restaurant: 435-425-3701, 91 East Main, PO Box 68, Bicknell, UT 84715. Open year round. Great family restaurant; steaks, burgers, Mexican food and specialty pies — Pinto Bean, Pickle, Buttermilk and Oatmeal.
Luna Mesa Oasis: 435-456-9122, Mile Marker 101, Hwy 24, PO Box 750140, Caineville, UT 84775. Open Feb-Oct. 8 a.m. – 9 p.m, closed Sundays., beer available. Mexican and American style food, BBQ ribs. Breakfast, lunch and dinner. Gift shop.
Blondies Eatery: 435-542-3255, 2 South Hwy 95, Hanksville, UT 84734. Open year round. 7 a.m.- 10 p.m. (shorter hours in winter). Full service restaurant — Breakfast, lunch and dinner. Char-broiled chicken & burgers, shakes & hard ice cream. Buses welcome; we do box lunches. Gifts, souvenirs, Indian pottery & jewelry.
Red Rock Restaurant: 435-542-3235, Junction of Hwys 24 & 95, PO Box 55, Hanksville, UT 84734. Open Apr – Oct, 7 a.m. – 10 p.m. Beer & wine available. We make excellent breakfast sweet rolls from scratch, delicious pies, cakes, breads aremade daily. We cut our own meat, great steaks and chicken.
Stan’s Burger Shack: 435-542-3330, Located at Chevron Station, Hwy 95 in Hanksville. Open year round, 7 a.m. – 10 p.m. The traditional Lake Powell stop. Great burgers, fries, shakes. Homemade onion rings.
Country Cafe: 435-836-2047, 289 North Main, Loa, UT 84747. Open year round, 6 am – 9 pm daily. Pies, lunch & dinner specials daily. Breakfast served all day.
Maria’s Grill: 435-836-2760, 193 East 300 South, Loa, UT 84747. Over 30 flavors of shakes. A fine mix of American and authentic Mexican. Best burgers and fries!
Toscanos Pizzeria: 435-836-2500, 55 S. Main, Loa, UT 84747. Located inside The Snuggle Inn. Gourmet Pizza’s, Big Wraps, Fresh Salads, Soups, Smoothies & Espresso Bar. We use organic coffee beans for our Latte’s, Cappuccinos & Frappiccinos; Chai Tea, Tazo Herbal Teas.
Mediterranean Atmosphere. Open Mon-Fri 11:30am -8:00 pm, Sat 4:00pm -8:00pm Open year around.
In the Fruita area, there are 15 day-hiking trails with trail heads located along Utah Hwy. 24 and the Scenic Drive. These trails offer the hiker a wide variety of options, from easy strolls along smooth paths over level ground to strenuous hikes involving steep climbs over uneven terrain near cliff edges. Hikes may take you deep into a narrow gorge, to the top of high cliffs for a bird’s eye view of the surrounding area, under a natural stone arch, to historic inscriptions…and much, much more! Round trip distances vary in length from less than 1/4 mile to 10 miles. All trails are well-marked with signs at the trail head and at trail junctions and by cairns (stacks of rocks) along the way. A free guide to the trails is available at the visitor center. Some trails have self-guiding brochures which are available, for a nominal fee, at the trail head or at the visitor center.
Back Country Hikes
Capitol Reef offers many hiking options for serious backpackers and those who enjoy exploring remote areas. Marked hiking routes lead into narrow, twisting gorges and slot canyons and to spectacular viewpoints high atop the Waterpocket Fold. Popular back country hikes in the southern section of the park include Upper and Lower Muley Twist Canyons and Halls Creek. Back country hiking opportunities also exist in the Cathedral Valley area and near Fruita…the possibilities are endless! Stop in the visitor center and talk to a ranger if you are interested in a back country hike. They can help you pick out a hike that will fit your time and abilities. If you plan to take an overnight hike, you need to obtain a free back country permit at the visitor center prior to your trip. Back country group size cannot exceed 12 people.
POPULAR BACKCOUNTRY ROUTES
- Upper Muley Twist Canyon
- Lower Muley Twist Canyon
- Halls Creek Narrows
- Spring Canyon
- Burro, Cottonwood & Sheet’s Gulch slot canyons
- Hamburger Rocks
- Brimhall Bridge
THE PETROGLYPH PULLOUT WALK
After a leisurely tour of the museum displays in the Visitor Center, take a walk along the “Petroglyph Pullout” on Utah Hwy 24, 1 1/2 miles east of the Visitor Center. Petroglyphs and pictographs, the so-called “rock art” of prehistoric peoples, have long held a special fascination for young and old alike. From the parking area, a short path leads to the base of the Wingate Sandstone cliff. Visible from this viewpoint are some of the most interesting petroglyph panels at Capitol Reef (see photo above).
Please DO NOT attempt to climb the talus slope in front of you. Use a telephoto lens for close-up photographs. Rock art panels are very fragile and many have already been seriously damaged through vandalism, carelessness, or ignorance. DO NOT TOUCH ANY PETROGLYPHS OR PICTOGRAPHS. Each touch removes a few more sand grains from the rock surface. We need your cooperation to protect and preserve these treasures of the past.
The pathway that leads to the east parallels the base of the cliff for about 500 feet and provides an opportunity for easy viewing of additional examples of Fremont rock art.
The path is uneven and narrow in places and may become slippery when wet. There are shady places along the way so the walk is not unpleasant even at midday. Many of the petroglyphs visible from the path are badly weathered and difficult to spot, especially in certain lighting. There is no best time of day or year for viewing – lighting conditions change from hour to hour and sometimes from minute to minute, depending on the play of sunshine and shadow on the cliff face. Take your time, walk a short distance, stop and explore the sheer Windgate Sandstone cliff with your eyes. Then, go a bit further and repeat the process. The excitement and thrill of discovering a petroglyph panel for yourself is a major part of the enjoyment of petroglyph watching and will be a rich reward for your patience and effort.
Check out Hondoo.com and RidetheReef.com
Our incredible high mountain lakes coupled with off the beaten path small stream fishing makes southern Utah a fly-fishing destination you won’t soon forget. Fremont River Guides has been fishing these waters for many years and will show you why our waters are some of the finest. They are a full-service outfitter for Utah’s rivers, and can arrange a fine experience for your group (www.flyfishingsouthernutah.com).
The Fremont River is the crown jewel of Utah’s less traveled trophy-trout waters, and in some ways may be the most demanding dry fly fishing you will ever encounter. The experience of the Fremont’s crystal clear slow moving water and lush riparian zones set against the stark contrast of the Red Rocks of Capitol Reef can seem surreal. Here you will find some enormous Browns, Rainbows, Brookies, Cutthroat and Tiger Trout consistently rising to strong hatches of aquatic insects throughout the season. An angler will quickly see what makes the Fremont River, the Boulder Mountains, Fishlake Mountains, Thousand Lakes Mountain, Markagunt Plateau and other neighboring streams or lakes so sought after. Our guides can help you unlock the secrets of the area and teach you the necessary skills to succeed. Any fly angler that is able to learn the basics of fishing these waters will find that all other places become easier and more enjoyable to fish.
After a nice hot breakfast, our guides will meet you on the steps of the Torrey Schoolhouse for a short drive to many superb fishing waters. The Fremont River runs through the town of Torrey and the Boulder Mountains (only 10 miles away). We supply all the necessary equipment and terminal tackle for a day on the water. We are a licensed and insured permittee of the Dixie and Fishlake National Forests as well as the BLM. Our experienced guides will show you what fly fishing southern Utah really has to offer. Dry-fly fishing various streams and rivers or casting to cruisers on a high mountain lake can be a reality here in Torrey. (We have hosted several fly fishing television shows including the Fly Fishing Masters and Reel Outdoors on the Sportsman Channel.)
Our guides will pick you up at the Torrey Schoolhouse for daily trips to these local waters for half-day and full day excursions. Call us now or visit our website for more information.
Fremont River Guides
About 500 feet down the path are the last petroglyphs along this section of the cliff: a large beautifully done image of a bighorn sheep and, on a large detached slab, the head and shoulders of a nearly life-size human figure. From this point, you can retrace your route, taking the left-hand fork in the path just before you reach the irrigation ditch crossing. This will bring you back to the parking area.
Capitol Reef National Park Scenic Drive
The Scenic Drive starts at the park Visitor Center and provides access to Grand Wash, Capitol Gorge, Pleasant Creek, and the South Draw Road. The Scenic Drive is a 10 mile paved road with dirt spur roads into Grand Wash and Capitol Gorge that, weather permitting, are accessible to ordinary passenger vehicles. The Scenic Drive is not a loop, so you must return on the same road. Entrance fees of $5 per vehicle are charged for the Scenic Drive. The entrance station is located just south of the campground on the Scenic Drive. There is no entrance fee for holders of Golden Eagle, Golden Age, or Golden Access passes. A free Guide to the Scenic Drive brochure is available at the entrance station. Follow this link for a virtual tour of the Scenic Drive.
South Draw Road
The South Draw Road is a high clearance 4-wheel-drive road that extends from Pleasant Creek to the park boundary near Tantalus Flats. The South Draw Road is rough and rocky, includes several creek crossings, and, in inclement weather, becomes impassable to even 4-wheel-drive vehicles. The South Draw Road is reached by following the Pleasant Creek Road from the end of the Scenic Drive to the crossing at Pleasant Creek. The South Draw Road climbs upward from Pleasant Creek, exits the park, and eventually meets Utah Hwy 12 at 8,500 feet on Boulder Mountain. The access to the South Draw Road from Boulder Mountain is closed in winter, and access from Pleasant Creek is not possible, except during the mildest winters, due to snow.
The Notom-Bullfrog road intersects Utah Hwy 24 9.3 miles east of the Capitol Reef Visitor Center and extends south to Bullfrog Marina and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. This dirt road runs along the eastern side of the Waterpocket Fold and offers excellent scenery as well as marvelous hiking opportunities. Access to many of the park’s back country trails, such as Lower Muley Twist and Halls Creek Narrows can be found off this road. While portions of the road outside the park are paved, the majority of the Notom-Bullfrog road is dirt and subject to changes in weather conditions. Visitors are advised to check with the Visitor Center before setting out.
Burr Trail Road
The Burr Trail road, originally a cattle trail blazed by stockman John Atlantic Burr, extends from the town of Boulder on Utah Hwy 12 to the Notom-Bullfrog Road. Much of the 36.5 mile road lies outside the boundary of Capitol Reef and traverses the Circle Cliffs, as well as spectacular canyon areas such as Long Canyon and The Gulch. The 5.3 mile stretch of road inside Capitol Reef includes a breathtaking set of switchbacks rising some 800 feet in only one- half mile. These switchbacks are not considered suitable for RVs or vehicles towing trailers. From Boulder to the west boundary of Capitol Reef, the Burr Trail road is surfaced. Inside the park it remains a graded dirt road and is subject to change due to weather conditions. Visitors should inquire about road and weather conditions before traveling.
The Hartnet road, or western half of the Cathedral Valley Loop, begins 11.7 miles east of the Visitor Center off Utah Hwy 24. In order to take this route to Cathedral Valley, visitors must ford the Fremont River soon after leaving the highway, which may require a 4WD vehicle. The remaining 24 miles to the top of the loop afford expansive view of the Blue Flats and the South Desert. The northern end of the loop nears Thousand Lake Mountain, and the geology and topography change greatly with the subsequent gain in elevation. Conditions on the Hartnet road vary widely based on recent weather. At best, high clearance vehicles are recommended and visitors should check with the Visitor Center for the most current road information.
Caineville Wash Road
The Caineville Wash road, or eastern side of the Cathedral Valley Loop, begins 18.6 miles east of the Visitor Center. By taking this route into Cathedral Valley, visitors avoid the Fremont River Ford on the Hartnet side of the loop; however, those planning on driving the entire loop are encouraged to begin at the River Ford to be certain they are able to make the crossing. 16.5 miles up the road, in Lower Cathedral Valley, are the Temple of the Sun and Moon, massive monoliths rising from the desert floor. Further north in Upper Cathedral Valley, columns of spire-like formations dominate the landscape. Conditions on the Caineville Wash road vary widely based on recent weather. Check with the Visitor Center for current road information.
Visitors of Capitol Reef are often curious about the orchards that lie within a mile or two of the Visitor Center. These trees are the most obvious remnant of the pioneer community of Fruita, which was settled in 1880. Usually no more than 10 families lived in Fruita at any one time, and the last resident moved away in 1969. Early settlers planted the orchards to insure subsistence. Today, the orchards are preserved and protected as a Rural Historic Landscape. The orchards hold approximately 2,700 trees and are composed of cherry, apricot, peach, pear, and apple, as well as, a few plum, mulberry, almond, and walnut trees. The National Park Service now owns and maintains the orchards with a 2-person orchard crew that is kept busy year round with pruning, irrigation, and orchard management.
You are welcome to stroll in any unlocked orchard and you may consume as much ripe fruit as you want while in the orchards.
Fruit may not be picked in quantity until the designated harvest begins. Orchards that are open for picking are signed as such. A fee is charged for all fruit picked and removed from the orchards. Signs listing fruit prices, scales, plastic bags, and a self-pay station are located near the entrance of open orchards. Please select only ripe fruit and leave the rest to ripen for other visitors.
Hand-held fruit pickers and ladders are provided to aid in picking. Never climb the trees to pick fruit! Please read the safety signs located near the orchard entrance before using orchard ladders. Be sure the ladder is on firm, level ground with the third leg fully extended and the chains pulled tight. Do not stand on the top 3 rungs, and avoid leaning to either side when picking. Children should not use ladders unsupervised. Please do not climb trees. The orchards can add much to your Capitol Reef visit … PLEASE THINK SAFETY…AND ENJOY THEM!
Orchard Flowering and Harvesting Times
3/31 – 4/19
6/11 – 7/7
2/27 – 3/20
6/27 – 7/22
3/7 – 4/13
6/28 – 7/18
3/26 – 4/23
8/4 – 9/6
3/31 – 5/3
8/7 – 9/8
Capitol Reef National Park
Capitol Reef National Park is just 5 minutes away on Scenic Highway 24. Enjoy unspoiled breathtaking vista’s and spectacular rock formations in all directions as you drive or hike through this incredible place. Capitol Reef has the clearest and cleanest air in our nation, and you’ll notice the difference as take in a deep breath and view panoramas hundreds of miles.
Thousand Lakes Mountain
To the north is part of Fish Lake National Forest. It offers unmatched hiking, biking, fishing, and camping sites, along with amazing views of Capitol Reef National Park.
To the south is part of Dixie National Forest. It also offers spectacular views of the National Park, as well as great fishing, biking, hiking, and camping.
The Cockscomb Mountain
This is a fascinating geological formation just southeast of Torrey. Only five minutes into the park you will find Fremont Indian Petroglyphs that are hundreds to thousands of years old!
Other Parks in the area
The Schoolhouse Bed and & Breakfast is in the center of the pioneer town of Torrey, located in a narrow valley between Thousand Lakes Mountain which is part of the Fish Lake National Forest to the north, and Boulder Mountain, part of the Dixie National Forest, to the south.
History and Culture of the Fremont Indians
(The following is excerpted from www.thefurtrapper.com. Please visit them for full article with illustrations and maps)
Fremont Indians is the name given to the diverse groups of Native Americans that inhabited the western Colorado Plateau and the eastern Great Basin from 400 A.D. to 1350 A.D. Classified as Fremont Indians, these groups were hunter-gathers, and may have spoken different languages, or had widely divergent dialects. There were probably no more than ten thousand Native American Indians scattered across the canyon lands and high deserts of the Great Basin at any one time.
In 1921, Harvard University’s Peabody Museum funded the Claflin-Emerson Expedition to study the pre-historic Indian sites of Utah. As part of the Claflin-Emerson research project, Noel Morss excavated in 1928 and 1929 several prehistoric Indian sites along the Fremont River of central Utah. Morss coined the term Fremont Indians to describe the Native Americans that inhabited these early prehistoric Indian sites. Morss maintained that the Fremont Indian Culture was clearly influenced by the Southwest Anasazi culture, but was not an integral part of it.
Archeologists use four distinctive artifact categories to distinguish the Fremont Indian Culture from the Anasazi or Ancestral Puebloans: a singular style of basketry, called one-rod-and-bundle, incorporated willow, yucca, milkweed, and other native fibers. Some archeologists believe this single artifact differentiates the Fremont Indian culture from the Anasazi, or the historic Native American groups. The Fremont used a moccasin style constructed from the hock of a deer or mountain sheep leg. This and other moccasin types found in Fremont sites are very different from the woven yucca sandals of the Anasazi. They fashioned
thin grey pottery with smooth, polished surfaces or corrugated designs pinched into the clay. They used a distinctive rock art style used in pictographs, petroglyphs, and clay figures depicting trapezoidal human figures bedecked in necklaces and blunt hairstyles.
A question still unanswered is where did the Fremont Indians come from?
One theory is that the Fremont Indians were a group of Anasazi that split off and headed north. Another theory is that the Fremont Indians, like the Anasazi emerged from an older desert archaic culture. Dr. Jesse D. Jennings summarized his views on the Desert Culture model at the Leigh Lecture at the University of Utah in 1975 (Janetski): From 10,000 or more years ago, until A.D. 400, the only culture represented in Utah, as well as the rest of the Great Basin, was the Desert Archaic. That culture is characterized as a hunting-gathering one, a flexible, highly adaptive life way that has characterized most of man’s worldwide history.
A new archeological study area along Range Creek in the Book Cliff Mountains of Utah will contribute a great deal of information on the Fremont Indian Culture. Protected for over fifty years by Waldo Wilcox, a Utah rancher, the Uintah Fremont villages along Range Creek have been virtually untouched. The Wilcox ranch was recently acquired by the State of Utah. The Range Creek sites will be studied and protected by Utah’s Wildlife Resources’ Division of History and the Utah Museum of Natural History.
Based on thin gray, coil pottery, the Fremont Indian sites in Utah are divided into five different groups. These classifications are based on a few common traits. It does not mean they were the same people. Although the vast majority of the Fremont Indian sites have been found in Utah, there have been sites, or Fremont Indian artifacts, found in western Colorado, southwestern Wyoming, eastern Nevada, and southern Idaho.
Fremont Indian origins are contemporaneous with early Mogollon villages of New Mexico and Arizona. The Fremont and Mogollon Indian cultures share many characteristics of architecture and ceramic design. Around 400 A.D., the Fremont Indians obtained corn through trade with the Mogollon. The corn used by the Fremont Indians, known as Fremont Dent, is resistant to drought, environmental extremes, and has a short growing season. The Fremont Indian corn appears to have been developed in the Fremont area from an early species found in the Mogollon highlands. This is not the same species of corn that is found in the Four Corners Region.
The Mogollon corn had originated in Mesoamerica about 4000 B.C. A wild plant known as Teosinte is the probable ancestor of corn, but this is a subject of debate between botanists (Diamond). The ears of Teosinte were only a few inches long and had no covering husks. By 750 A.D., agriculture was beginning to be a major source of food for some groups of Fremont Indians. In many cases, the Fremont Indians that embraced agriculture were using flood irrigation to grow corn, squash, and beans in the semi-aired land. Some of the ditches were several miles long, and are still visible in some places today (Barnes). Corn, beans, and squash grown along the river bottoms added to the Fremont diet of native plants such as pickleweed, amaranth, pinyon nuts, globe mallow, rice grass, beeweed, berries, bulbs, and tubers along with meat from hunting. The floral and faunal material found at various Fremont Indian sites indicates a mixed horticultural and hunting-and-gathering subsistence (Stone). Excess food was stored in pottery jars or baskets inside small masonry structures in the village or in small granaries tucked under overhangs on narrow ledges. These storage granaries can still be occasionally spotted in canyonlands.
The Fremont Culture was not a rigid society like the Anasazi. The Fremont Indians seemed to take delight in being different. Jackal houses, small unit houses, and pit houses are often found in the same village (Barnes). Despite some villages being close together, the Fremont Indians were an aggressive people and unease truces existed between the villages. The pit houses of the Parowan Fremont were low semi-subterranean structures covered with brush. Sometimes, the pit house were covered with a mud coating. The pit houses varied in shape from circular to rectilinear and were generally about two feet deep. A fire ring was in the center of the pit houses The Parowan Fremont built their pit houses close together, usually ten to twenty pit houses on a valley floor near streams (Stone).
On the other hand, the San Rafael Fremont’s pit houses were usually slab-lined. They also built above ground masonry structures, often multi-roomed, that were constructed with and without mortar. In both cases, four central roof supports were used. The structures were plastered on the interior walls, and slab-lined fire pits were common. The San Rafael Fremont village sites were on hills and ridges overlooking permanent water sources and their farmland.
Deer, bighorn sheep, rabbits, birds, fish and rodents were hunted using snares, nets, fishhooks, and the bow and arrow. The animal hides were used for breechclouts, moccasins, robes, leather mittens, and other warm garments. Unlike the Anasazi, the Fremont Indian women used the animal skins to make clothing. The Fremont women sewed and mended the leather, which the Anasazi never mastered. The Fremont Indian as a hunter-gather, and settled-village, lifestyle continued for about 600 years.